medial tibial stress syndromeAlso called shin splints. Common cause of shin pain and diffuse tenderness in runners and military recruits. Caused by bone resorption that outpaces bone formation in tibial cortex. musculoskeletal HirotoShishido
iliotibial band syndromeOveruse injury of lateral knee that occurs primarily in runners. Pain develops 2° to friction of iliotibial band against lateral femoral epicondyle. musculoskeletal HirotoShishido
PictureTorRuS fracture (隆起骨折)
Axial force applied to immature bone→ cortex buckles on compression (concave) side and fractures. Tension (convex) side Remains Solid (intact). musculoskeletal HirotoShishido
radial head subluxationCommon elbow injury in children < 5 years. Caused by a sudden pull on the arm→ immature ☆annular ligament slips over head of radius. Injured arm held in extended/slightly flexed and pronated position. musculoskeletalUWorld HirotoShishido
De Quervain tenosynovitisNoninflammatory thickening of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons→ pain or tenderness at radial styloid.
⊕ Finkelstein test (pain at radial styloid with active or passive stretch of thumb tendons).↑risk in new mothers, golfers, racquet sport players, “thumb” texters. musculoskeletalanatomy HirotoShishido
Baker cysts(popliteal cysts)
Popliteal fluid collection in gastrocnemius-semimembranosus bursa commonly communicating with synovial space and related to chronic joint disease (eg, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis). musculoskeletalUWorld HirotoShishido
bursitisBursae are vulnerable to injury from acute trauma or chronic repetitive pressure and may also become inflamed due to infection (septic bursitis), crystalline arthropathy (eg, gout), or autoimmune conditions (eg, rheumatoid arthritis).
☆prepatellar bursitis ("housemaid knee")→ repetitive anterior knee trauma from kneeling
anserine bursitis→ frequently results from obesity or overuse in athletes
muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ(GTO)muscle spindle→ located in body of muscle, and activated by ↑ muscle stretch (sensed by type Ⅰa and Ⅱ sensory axons)→ simultaneous inhibition of antagonist muscle (prevents overstretching) and activation of agonist muscle (contraction)
GTO→ located in tendon, and activated by ↑ muscle force (sensed by type Ⅰb sensory axons)→ inhibition of agonist muscle (reduced tension within muscle and tendon, preventing damage to musculoskeletal systems) musculoskeletal HirotoShishido
distortions of the handClawing”—seen best with distal lesions of median or ulnar nerves. Remaining extrinsic flexors of the digits exaggerate the loss of the lumbricalsfingers extend at MCP, flex at DIP and PIP joints.